South African English

English has been spoken in South Africa for over 200 years, evolving into a distinct dialect with a vocabulary strongly influenced by indigenous languages. Learn to understand the locals with our comprehensive guide to Mzanzi taal.

database to help unemployed teachers
The database aims to cut down on turnaround times in filling vacant teaching posts across the country. (Image: Brand South Africa)

Compiled by Mary Alexander

English has been spoken in South Africa for over 200 years, at least since the British seized the Cape of Good Hope territory in 1795, and quite possibly long before.

Over the decades the language has evolved into a distinct dialect, with a vocabulary strongly influenced by indigenous languages.

The greatest influence is probably from Afrikaans, an African language developed out of Dutch. The English spoken in South Africa also shows the influence of other local languages – isiZulu, isiXhosa, Sesotho, and the languages of the Khoisan and Nama people.

Here and there are words imported from other British and Dutch colonies, such as India and Indonesia, as well as from later immigrants – Greeks, Lebanese, Eastern European Jews, Portuguese, and more.

According to South Africa’s 2011 census, English is spoken as a home language by 8.2% of the population. A third of those are not white. It’s estimated that half the population has a speaking knowledge of the language.

Below is a glossary of the more common words unique to South African English.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | XYZ


abakwetha (a-ba-kwe-ta) – noun, plural – Young Xhosa men being initiated into manhood at initiation school. From the isiXhosa umkwetha, plural abakwetha.

abba verb – Carry a child secured to one’s back with a blanket. From the Khoisan.

Africanis noun Indigenous breed of African dog, thought to be distantly related to other landrace dogs such as the dingo. Known for its intelligence, disease-resistance and excellent adaptation to harsh African conditions, the breed evolved in association with humans, instead of being artificially bred in the manner of European breeds. The name was coined by University of KwaZulu-Natal Africanis expert Johan Gallant, from “Africa” and “canis”, the Latin for dog.

Afrikaans noun – South African language, developed out of the Dutch spoken in the country since the first Dutch East India Company settlement in the Cape, established in 1652. Afrikaans was considered a dialect of Dutch – known as “Cape Dutch” – until recognised as a language in the late 19th century. From the Dutch for “African”.

Afrikaner noun – Afrikaans-speaking South African. From the Dutch Afrikaan (an African)

Afrikaner (Afrikander) – noun – Indigenous South African Bos indicus breed of long-horned beef cattle.

ag (agh) – exclamation, informal – Expression of frustration, outrage, impatience or resignation. Generally used at the beginning of a sentence, as in: “Ag no! I spilled coffee on my keyboard again!”

Amakhosi (a-ma-koz-ee) – noun – Affectionate term for the Kaizer Chiefs football club. From the isiZulu for “chiefs”.

amakhosi (a-ma-koz-ee) – noun, plural – Traditional leaders; chiefs (plural). From the isiZulu.

amasi (um-ah-see) – noun – Thick curdled milk, also known as maas; similar to yoghurt. A traditional drink, amasi is now produced commercially by Douglasdale Dairy under the unsurprising trade name Amasi. From the isiXhosa and isiZulu.

Anglo-Boer Warnoun – War between the British and the Boers, the forebears of today’s Afrikaners, from 1899 to 1902. While strictly the Second Boer War – the first being fought from 1880 to 1881 – it was by far the more significant conflict. Today the Anglo-Boer War is also known as the South African War in recognition of the fact that while the principal combatants were the British and Boers, other nations and communities – such as Africans and Indians – also took part.

Anglo-Zulu Warnoun – War between the British and the Zulus, fought in 1879. Most famous for the battle of Isandlwana, in which the British suffered their greatest single military defeat ever.

apartheid (apart-hate) – noun – Literally “apartness” in Afrikaans, apartheid was the policy of racial segregation implemented by the National Party from 1948 to 1994, resulting in the oppression and exploitation of South Africa’s black majority, and their systematic exclusion from the country’s mainstream economic, educational and social life.

atchar noun – A spicy relish of Indian origin, much like a mix between chutney and a pickle and usually made from green mangoes. From Persian.

aweh exclamation, informal – Enthusiastic yes, absolutely.


babbelas (bub-buh-luss) – noun, informal – Hangover. From the isiZulu ibhabhalazi (hangover).

bagel (bay-gell) – noun – Overly groomed materialistic young man, and the male version of a kugel. From the Yiddish word for the pastry.

bakgat (buck-ghut) – exclamation and adjective, informal – Fantastic, cool, awesome. From the Afrikaans.

bakkie (buck-ee) – noun – Utility truck, pick-up truck. Diminutive of the Afrikaans bak (container).

Basotho noun, plural – The South Sotho people, principally those living in Lesotho. The singular is Mosotho.

beer boepnoun – Beer belly. From boep.

bergnoun – Mountain. From the Afrikaans.

bergie (bear-ghee) – noun, derogatory – Originally referring to vagrants who sheltered in the forests of Cape Town’s Table Mountain and now a mainstream word for anyone who is down and out. From the Afrikaans berg (mountain).

big five, thenoun – Africa’s most famous five species of wildlife and a must-see on visits to nature conservation areas: lion, elephant, buffalo, leopard and rhino.

biltong (bill-tong) – noun – Dried and salted meat, similar to beef jerky, although it can be made from ostrich, kudu or any other red meat. The privations of early white colonialism made drying and salting, often with vinegar and spices, an essential means of preserving meat. From the Afrikaans, originally from the Dutch bil (rump) and tong (strip or tongue).

bioscope noun, dated – Cinema or movie theatre, originally a word widespread in Commonwealth countries such as South Africa and Australia that, although generally out of use, has survived longer in South Africa because of the influence of the Afrikaans bioskoop.

biscuit noun – Both a cookie and a informal term of affection for a person.

bittereinder (bitter-ayn-der) – noun – Bitter-ender or diehard; Boer who refused to surrender and continued to resist after defeat at the end of the Anglo-Boer War.

blesbok noun – South African antelope Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi, with a reddish-brown coat and prominent white blaze on the face. From the Afrikaans bles (blaze) and bok (buck).

bliksem verb and noun, informal – To beat up, hit or punch – or a mischievous person. From the Afrikaans for “lightning”. See donder.

blooming (blimmin) – adjective and adverb, informal – Very, extremely, used with irritation: “My laptop’s a blooming mess after I spilled coffee on the keyboard.”

bobotie (buh-boor-tee) – noun – Dish of Malay origin, made with minced meat and spices, and topped with an egg sauce. The recipe arrived in South Africa during the country’s Dutch occupation, via slaves from Dutch East India Company colonies in Jakarta, in today’s Indonesia. From the Indonesian bobotok.

boekenhout noun – The Cape beech tree Rapanea melanophloeos, or its wood. From the Afrikaans beuk (beech) and hout (wood).

boep noun – Pot belly, paunch; generally associated with the conformation of older – or beer-drinking – men. Shortened form of the Afrikaans boepens (paunch), from the Dutch boeg (bow of ship) and pens (stomach).

boer noun – Farmer. From the Afrikaans and Dutch.

Boer noun – Member of a nation descended from the Dutch settlers who arrived in South Africa in 1652, with some intermingling with French Huguenots, German immigrants, indigenous people and others. The Boers trekked by oxwagon from the Cape into the South African hinterland, formed short-lived republics, and went on to fight a major war with the British empire, the Anglo-Boer War. Today’s white Afrikaners are the descendants of the Boers. From the Afrikaans and Dutch for “farmer”.

Boer Goatnoun – Hardy and productive South African goat breed, a cross between indigenous and European goat types. From the Afrikaans boer (farmer).

Boerboel, Boerbul, Boerbulnoun – Large and powerful South African breed of dog, crossbred from the Mastiff and indigenous breeds such as the Africanis and Ridgeback, originally for farm work. From the Afrikaans boer (farmer) and Dutch bul (Mastiff).

boerewors (boor-uh-vors) – noun – Savoury sausage developed by the Boers, the forebears of today’s Afrikaners, some 200 years ago, and still popular at braais across South Africa. Also known as wors. From the Afrikaans boer (farmer) and wors (sausage, Dutch worst).

Boerperd noun – South African horse breed, the product of cross-breeding indigenous horses with breeds introduced by early European settlers. From the Afrikaans boer (farmer) and perd (horse).

boet (like book, with a t) – noun, informal – Term of affection, from the Afrikaans for “brother”.

bok noun – Buck. From the Afrikaans.

Bokke noun – Affectionate term for the Springboks, South Africa’s national rugby team, winners of the 1995 and 2007 World Cup. From the Afrikaans plural for “buck”.

bokkom, bokkemnoun – South African salted fish hung on an outdoor rack for wind-drying – a kind of fish biltong. From the Dutch bokking, bokkem (smoked herring).

boma (bow-mah) – noun – In South Africa, an open thatched structure used for dinners, entertainment and parties. Originally a form of log fortification used to keep livestock in or enemies out. First found in African explorer Henry Morton Stanley’s book How I found Livingstone (1871), the word is used across Africa and is of uncertain origin.

bonsella noun – Bonus, surprise gift, something extra, or bribe. From the isiZulu bansela (offer a gift in gratitude).

Bonsmara noun – South African breed of beef cattle, cross-bred for both hardiness in local conditions and high production from Shorthorn, Hereford and indigenous Afrikaner cattle. The name comes from Professor Jan Bonsma, who developed the breed, and the Mara research station where it was first produced.

bontebok noun – African antelope (Damaliscus dorcas dorcas) with a white-and-brown hide, related to the blesbok. From the Afrikaans bont (pied) and bok (buck).

bosberaad (borse-bah-raad) – noun – Strategy meeting or conference, usually held in a remote bushveld location such as a game farm. From the Afrikaans bos (bush) and raad (council).

bra (brah) – noun – Brother, friend, mate. Shortening of “brother”.

braai (br-eye) – noun – Outdoor barbecue, and a defining South African institution. From the Afrikaans for “roast” or “barbecue”.

bredie (brear-dee) – noun – Originally mutton stew, introduced by Malay slaves brought to South Africa by the Dutch East India Company. It now refers to any kind of stew. Tomato bredie – stewed tomato and onions served with pap at a braai – is a favourite. From the Afrikaans, originally perhaps from the Portuguese bredo.

broekie lacenoun – Ornate wooden or metal fretwork found on the verandahs of Victorian and Edwardian houses, mainly in the Western Cape. “Broekie” is Afrikaans for “panty”.

bru (brew) – noun, informal – Term of affection, shortened from Afrikaans and Dutch broer (pronounced “broo-er”), meaning “brother”.

Buccaneers noun – Affectionate term for the Orlando Pirates football team. From the historical word for “pirate”.

bunny chownoun – Curry served in a hollowed-out half-loaf of bread, with the hollowed-out piece of bread (“the virgin”) placed on top. The dish originated in Durban’s immigrant Indian (and otherwise Asian) community, which arrived in what was then the colony of Natal from 1860 onwards. It is believed that bunny chow was a convenient food on the go for Indian labourers working especially in the colony’s sugarcane plantations. Today it is available across South Africa, in both cheap cafes and exclusive Indian restaurants. “Chow” is South African informal for food, perhaps from “chow-chow”, a relish that gets its name from the French chou (cabbage). The origin of “bunny” in bunny chow is, according to one theory, that the meal was first sold at a Durban restaurant run by Banias, an Indian caste.

Bushman noun – Member of a population group indigenous to southern Africa, with a far deeper history than any other settlers in the region. Bushmen are also known as San. There is some debate on the political correctness of the use of “San” versus “Bushman”.

bushveld (bush-felt) – noun – South Africa’s distinctive tropical savannah ecoregion, a terrain of thick scrubby trees and bush in dense thickets, with grassy groundcover between. From the Afrikaans bos (bush) and veld (field).


café (kaff-ay, kaff-ee or kayff) – noun – Once a ubiquitous small neighbourhood convenience store stocking newspapers, cigarettes and basic groceries, found on South Africa’s fast-disappearing suburban high streets.

casspir noun – South African armoured vehicle, infamously deployed in townships during the anti-apartheid uprisings of the 1980s. Originally designed as a landmine-proof vehicle for use in South Africa’s border war with Angola, in the same era. Casspir is an anagram of SAP and CSIR: the customer was the South African Police (SAP), and the developer the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).

chakalaka noun – a spicy vegetable dish traditionally served as a sauce or relish with bread, pap, samp, stews or curries

check youexclamation, informal – Goodbye, see you later.

china noun, informal – Friend, mate. From the Cockney rhyming slang “china plate” = “mate”.

chiskop, chizkop, cheesekop, kaaskopnoun, informal – Bald person, particularly one with a shaved head. Kop is Afrikaans for head; the origin of the chis part is unclear. Otherwise known as kaaskop; kaas is Afrikaans for “cheese”.

chommie noun, informal – Friend, mate. From the UK English chum, with the Afrikaans diminutive “ie”.

chop noun, informal – Fool, idiot; often used affectionately.

Clever Boys, thenoun – Affectionate term for the University of the Witwatersrand football club, Wits FC.

cooldrink, colddrinknoun – Sweet fizzy drink such as Coca-Cola.

cousin, cuzzynoun, informal – Friend, mate.


dagga (dach-ah) – noun, informal – Marijuana. From the Afrikaans, originally from the Khoikhoi dachab.

dagha (dugg-ah) – noun – Building mortar or plaster traditionally made with mud mixed with cow-dung and blood. Today it also refers to regular cement mortar and plaster. From the isiZulu and isiXhosa udaka (clay, mud).

dassie noun – Rock hyrax or Cape hyrax (Procavia capensis), a small herbivore that lives in mountainous habitats. From the Afrikaans das (badger).

deurmekaar (dee-er-muh-car) – adjective, informal – Confused, disorganised or stupid, from the Afrikaans word of the same meaning. In that language deur means “through” or “throughout”; mekaar means “each other” or “one another”.

dinges (ding-us) – noun, informal – Thing, thingamabob, whatzit, whatchamacallit, whatsizname or person with a forgotten name, as in: “When is dinges coming around?” From the Afrikaans and Dutch ding (thing).

doek (like book) – noun – Woman’s head scarf. From the Afrikaans.

dolos noun – Blocks of concrete in an H-shape, with one arm rotated through 90º. The dolos is a South African invention, with the interlocking blocks piled together to protect harbour seawalls and preserve beaches from erosion. The word comes from the Afrikaans for the knuckle bones in a sheep’s leg. The plural is dolosse.

dompas noun – Passbook black South Africans were required by law to carry at all times in urban areas during the apartheid era. From the Afrikaans dom (dumb, stupid) and pas (pass).

donga noun – Ditch or deep fissure caused by severe soil erosion. From the isiZulu and isiXhosa udonga.

donner (dor-nuh) – verb, informal – Hit, beat up. From the Afrikaans donder (thunder). See bliksem.

dop (dawp) – noun and verb, informal – Small tot of alcoholic drink. Also failure: “I dopped the test.” From the Afrikaans.

dorpnoun – Small rural town. From the Afrikaans and Dutch dorp (village).

droëwors (droo-uh-vors) – noun – Dried boerewors, similar to biltong. From the Afrikaans droe (dry) and wors (sausage).

Durbs noun, informal – The city of Durban.

dwaal (dwarl) – noun and verb, informal – Lack of concentration or focus: “Sorry, I was in a bit of a dwaal. Could you repeat that?” Or, as a verb: “I was dwaaling down the street, going nowhere.” From the Afrikaans for err, wander or roam.


Egoli noun – Johannesburg, and the title of a local soap opera set in the city. From the isiXhosa and isiZulu for “place of gold”; Johannesburg is historically South Africa’s primary gold-producing area, and the country’s richest city.

eina (ay-nuh or ay-nar) – exclamation and adjective, informal – Ouch! or Ow! Can also mean “sore”. Example (exclamation): “Eina! I just cut my finger.” Example (adjective): “That cut was eina.” From the Afrikaans, perhaps originally from the Khoikhoi /é + //náu.

eish (aysh) – exclamation, informal – Expression of surprise, wonder, frustration or outrage. Example: “Eish! That cut was eina!” From the isiXhosa and isiZulu.

ekasi – See kasie


Fanagolo noun – Pidgin language that grew up mainly on South Africa’s gold mines to allow communication between white supervisors and African labourers during the colonial and apartheid era. It combines elements of the Nguni languages, English, and Afrikaans. From the Nguni fana ka lo, from fana (be like) and the possessive suffix -ka + lo (this).

fixed upexclamation, informal – That’s good, yes, sorted. Example: “Let’s meet at the restaurant.” The reply: “Fixed up.”

flog verb, informal – Sell. Example: “I’ve had enough of this laptop. I think it’s time I flogged it.”

for sure, sure, sure-sureexclamation, informal – Yes; general affirmative.

frikkadel (frik-kuh-dell) – noun – Meatball or rissole. From the Afrikaans, originally from the French fricandeau (fried sliced meat served with sauce).

fundi (foon-dee) – noun – Expert. From the Nguni umfundisi (teacher, preacher).

fynbos (fayn-baws) – noun – “Fine bush” in Afrikaans, fynbos is a vegetation type unique to the Cape Floral Region – a Unesco World Heritage Site – made up of some 6 000 plant species, including many types of protea.


gatvol (ghut-foll) – adjective, informal – Fed up. From the Afrikaans.

gemsbok (ghems-bok) – noun – Large African antelope (Oryx gazella) with long, straight horns. From the Afrikaans gems (chamois, a European goat-antelope) and bok (buck).

gogga, goggo (gho-gha or gho-gho) – noun – Insect, bug. From the Khoikhoi xo-xon.

gogo (goh-goh) – noun – Grandmother or elderly woman. From the isiZulu.

gramadoelas (ghram-ah-dool-as) – noun – Wild or remote country. From the Afrikaans, perhaps originally from the isiXhosa and isiZulu induli (hillock).

grand apartheidnoun – The most systematic and rigid implementation of apartheid, such as the creation of the “homelands” under the policy of “separate development”, during the 1960s and 1970s.

graze verb, informal – Eat.

Griqua noun, plural and singular – South African population group, or a member of that group, descended from a mix of early (from 1652) European blood with that of the indigenous Khokhoi, San and Tswana. They generally speak Afrikaans, and have their own church, the Protestant Griqua Church. “Griqua” is a Nama word.

Griqualand noun – Two South African regions historically occupied by the Griqua. Griqualand East, on the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal frontier, was settled by Adam Kok III and over 2 000 Griquas after a trek across the Drakensberg mountains in 1861. Today the region is centred around the town of Kokstad (Kok’s city). Griqualand West is the area around Kimberley, the capital of the Northern Cape. “Griqua” is a Nama word.

grysbok (gh-rays-bok) – noun – Two species of small South African antelope (genus Raphicerus). From the Afrikaans and Dutch for “grey buck”.


hamerkop (haa-mer-kop) – noun – South African marsh bird (Scopus umbretta), related to the storks, with a prominent crest on the head. From the Afrikaans hamer (hammer) and kop (head).

Hanepoot (haa-nah-poort) – noun – Sweet wine made from the muscat blanc d’Alexandrie grape cultivar, and an alternate name for this cultivar.

hang of aadjective, informal – Very or big, as in: “It’s hang of a difficult” or “I had a hang of a problem”.

hey exclamation, informal – Expression that can be used as a standalone question meaning “pardon?” or “what?” – “Hey? What did you say?” Or it can be used to prompt affirmation or agreement, as in “It was a great film, hey?”

homelands noun – The spurious “independent” states in which black South Africans were forced to take citizenship under the policy of apartheid. Also known as bantustans.

howzit exclamation, informal – Common South African greeting that translates roughly as “How are you?”, “How are things?” or simply “Hello”. From “How is it?”


imbizo noun – Gathering called by a traditional leader, or any meeting or workshop. From the isiZulu biza (call, summon)

imbongi noun – Traditional praise singer. From the isiXhosa and isiZulu.

indaba (in-daa-bah) – noun – Conference or expo. From the isiZulu and isiXhosa for “matter” or “discussion”.

inyanga noun – Traditional herbalist and healer. From the Nguni.

is it (izit) – exclamation, informal – Is that so?

Iscamtho, isiCamthonoun – Tsotsitaal (gangster language), a widely-spoken township patois made up of an amalgam of words from isiZulu, isiXhosa, Afrikaans and some English. From the isiZulu camto (speak).

isiNdebele noun – Nguni language of the Ndebele people.

isiXhosa noun – Nguni language of the Xhosa people

isiZulu noun – Nguni language of the Zulu people.


ja (yaa) – exclamation, informal – Yes. From the Afrikaans.

jawelnofine exclamation, informal – Literally, “yes (ja in Afrikaans), well, no, fine”, all scrunched into a single word and similar to the rhetorical expression “How about that?”

jislaaik (yis-like) – exclamation, informal – Expression of outrage, surprise or consternation: “Jislaaik, I just spilled coffee on my laptop!” From the Afrikaans.

Joburg noun – Johannesburg, South Africa’s largest city. Once informal, it is now used on the City of Johannesburg logo.

Joeys noun, informal – Johannesburg, South Africa’s largest city

jol (jawl or jorl) – noun, verb and adjective, informal – Celebration, fun, party, disco (noun); celebrate, have fun, party, dance and drink (verb). A person who attends or does these things regularly is known as a joller. From the Afrikaans for “dance” or “party”; perhaps related to “jolly”. Occasionally spelled “jawl” or “jorl”.

Jozi (jo-zee) – noun, informal – Johannesburg, South Africa’s largest city

just nowadverb, informal – Soonish, not immediately.


kaaskop, chiskop, chizkop, cheesekopnoun, informal – Bald person, or person with a shaved head. “Kop” is Afrikaans for head. “Kaas” is the Afrikaans for head, but the meaning is unclear.

kasie (kaa-see) – noun – Shortened form of the Afrikaans lokasie (location), the older word for township – the low-income dormitory suburbs outside cities and towns to which black South Africans were confined during the apartheid era.

khaya (k-eye-ya) – noun – Home. From the Nguni group of languages.

Khoikhoi [also Quena] – noun – Indigenous South African people, including the Nama, and their languages. From the Nama, “men of men”.

Khoisan noun – Collective term for the Khoi and San people of South Africa.

kiepersol noun – Cabbage tree. From the Afrikaans, originally perhaps from the obsolete Indian English kittisol (parasol). The tree has some resemblance to an umbrella.

kif adjective, informal – Cool, good, enjoyable. From the Arabic kayf (enjoyment, wellbeing).

kikoi noun – Attractively patterned cotton cloth with fringed ends used as an informal wraparound skirt, or towel, or picnic blanket. From the Kiswahili.

Kiswahili noun – Swahili, the language.

knobkierie (k-nob-kee-ree) – noun – Fighting stick with a knob on the business end. From the Afrikaans knop (knob) and the Khoisan kirri or keeri, (stick).

koeksuster (kook-sister) – noun – Also spelled koeksister. Traditional Malay and Afrikaner sweet, made from twisted yeast dough, deep fried and dipped in syrup. The right-wing enclave of Orania in the Northern Cape even has its own statue to the koeksister. The word comes from the Dutch koek (cake) and sissen (to sizzle).

koki (koh-key) – noun – Coloured marker or felt-tip pen. From a local brand name.

kombi noun – Minibus taxi. From the Volkswagen proprietary name Kombi, from the German Kombiwagen. Volkswagen minibuses were the first used in the initial stages of South Africa’s minibus taxi transport revolution of the early 1980s, although today other vehicle makes are used.

konfyt noun – Sweet fruit preserve. From the Afrikaans, originally from the Dutch konfit.

koppie (kor-pie) – noun – Small hill. From the Afrikaans.

korhaan noun – Group of species of long-legged African bird (genus Eupodotis) found in open country. From the Dutch korhaan (black male grouse), from korren (too coo) and haan (cock).

kraal noun – Enclosure for livestock, or a rural village of huts surrounded by a stockade. The word may come from the Portuguese curral (corral), or from the Dutch kraal (bead), as in the beads of a necklace – kraals are generally round in shape.

krans noun – Cliff; overhanging wall of rock. From the Afrikaans.

kudu noun – Large African antelope (Tragelaphus strepsiceros and Tragelaphus imberbis). From the Afrikaans koedoe, originally from the isiXhosa i-qudu.

kugel (koo-gell) – noun– Overly groomed materialistic young woman, from the Yiddish for a plain pudding garnished as a delicacy. A bagel is the male variety.

kwaito (kw-eye-toe) – noun – Music of South Africa’s urban black youth, which first emerged in the 1990s. Kwaito is a mixture of South African disco, hip hop, R&B, ragga, and a heavy dose of house music beats. From the Tsotsitaal or township informal amakwaitosi (gangster).

kwela (kw-eh-la) – noun – Popular form of township music from the 1950s, based on the pennywhistle – a cheap and simple instrument taken up by street performers. The term kwela comes from the isiZulu for “get up” or “climb on”, also township slang for police vans, the kwela-kwela. It is said that the young men who played the pennywhistle on street corners also acted as lookouts to warn those drinking in illegal shebeens of the arrival of the cops.

kwela-kwela (kw-eh-la kw-eh-la) – noun – Police van, or minibus taxi. From the isiXhosa and isiZulu for “climb on”.


laatlammetjie (laart-lum-et-chie) – noun – Youngest child of a family, born to older parents and much younger than their siblings. The word means “late lamb” in Afrikaans.

laduma! (la-doo-mah) – exclamation – Popular cheer celebrating goals scored at soccer matches, from the isiZulu for “it thunders”.

lapa (laa-pah) – noun – Open-sided enclosure, usually roofed with thatch, used as an outdoor entertainment area. From the Sesotho for “homestead” or “courtyard”.

lappie (luppie) – noun – Cleaning cloth. From the Afrikaans, originally from the Dutch for “rag” or “cloth”.

lekgotla (lek-ghot-lah) – noun – Planning or strategy session. From the Setswana for “meeting” or “meeting place”.

lekker (lek-irr) – adjective and adverb, informal – Nice, good, great, cool or tasty. From the Afrikaans.

load sheddingnoun – Planned electricity blackout in a specific area, to relieve pressure on South Africa’s national power grid. To be “shed” is to have a power outage because of load shedding.

location noun – South African township; lokasie or kasie in Afrikaans.

loerie (lourie) – noun – Number of species of large fruit-eating African bird (genus Tauraco and others). From the Afrikaans, originally from the Malay luri (parrot).


maas noun – Thick curdled milk, also known as amasi; similar to yoghurt. A traditional drink, amasi is now produced commercially by Douglasdale Dairy under the unsurprising trade name Amasi. From the isiXhosa and isiZulu.

Madiba (muh-dee-buh) – noun – Affectionate name for former President Nelson Mandela, and the name of his clan.

madumbe noun – South African potato-like tuber (Colocasia esculenta and Colocasia antiquorum), cultivated mostly in KwaZulu-Natal, greyish in colour and rather tasty. From the isiZulu amadumbe.

makarapa (mak-ah-rah-pah) – noun – A well-crafted and decorated headgear usually won by football fans in South Africa. It’s designed from miners’ helmet.  From isiXhosa

mal (mull) – adjective, informal – Mad. from the Afrikaans.

mama noun – Old woman.

mamba (mum-bah) – noun – Species of large and venomous African snake – the black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis), the green mamba (Dendroaspis angustipecs), and other species. From the isiZulu imamba.

mampara (mum-puh-rah) – noun, informal – Idiot; stupid or silly person. From the Fanagolo. The Sunday Times newspaper celebrates the follies of prominent South Africans with its Mampara of the Week award.

mampoer (mum-poo-er) – noun – Extremely potent brandy made from peaches or other fruit, similar to moonshine. An Afrikaans word with uncertain etymology; perhaps from the Pedi chief Mampuru. See witblitz.

marula, maroela (ma-roo-lah) – noun – South African woodland tree (Sclerocarya birrea caffra) with sweet yellow fruit. The tree was made famous in the 1974 South African film Beautiful People, a candid camera-type look at local wildlife, in which elephants were shown getting drunk on dropped and fermented marula fruit. The fruit is now used in a locally produced commercial liqueur marketed as Amarula. From the Sesotho morula.

Matabele (mah-tah-bee-lee) – noun – Nguni-language-speaking people of Zimbabwe, and the majority population group in that country.

mbube (m-boo-beh) – noun – Style of South African township music developed in the 1940s by Zulu migrants to urban areas. The first example of the style was the song Mbube by Solomon Linda and the Evening Birds. The song was copied as Wimoweh by Pete Seeger in 1952, and as The Lion Sleeps Tonight by The Tokens in 1961. It also featured in Disney’s hit animated film The Lion King. Solomon Linda died in 1962 with less than R100 in his bank account. His family couldn’t afford a headstone for his grave. The song is said to have generated some US$15-million in royalties. Linda’s descendants were only compensated for seven decades of copyright infringement in 2007, for an undisclosed amount. “Mbube” is isiZulu for “lion”.

mealie (mih-lih) – noun – Maize or corn. A mealie is a maize cob, and mealie meal is maize meal, mostly cooked into pap, South Africa’s staple food. From the Afrikaans mielie.

melktert noun – “Milk tart”, a traditional Afrikaner dessert. From the Afrikaans.

MK noun – Abbreviation of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the African National Congress army in exile.

mlungu noun – White person. From the Nguni. The plural is abelungu.

moegoe (moo-ghoo) – noun, informal – Fool, buffoon, idiot or simpleton. From Afrikaans and Tsotsitaal.

moer (muh-r) – verb, informal – hit, punch, beat up. From the Afrikaans “murder”.

mokoro noun – Dugout canoe used in Botswana.

mopani, mopane (moh-paa-nih) – noun – South African tree of the northern bushveld, Colophospermun mopane, and the bioregion associated with the tree.

mopani worm (moh-paa-nih worm) – noun – Moth caterpillar that feeds on the leaves of the mopani tree. Fried, the caterpillar is also a traditional dish.

morogo (mor-oh-gho) – noun – Spinach; more specifically African spinach. From the Setswana and Sesotho “wild spinach” or “vegetables”.

Mosotho (moh-su-tu) – noun – A South Sotho person. The plural is Basotho.

mossie (morse-ee) – noun – Cape sparrow or house sparrow, but sometimes used to refer to any small undistinguished wild bird. From the Afrikaans, originally from the Dutch mosje, a diminutive of mos (sparrow).

mozzie noun, informal – mosquito.

muti, muthi (moo-ti) – noun – Medicine, typically traditional African medicine, from the isiZulu umuthi.

Mzansi (m-zun-zee) – noun – South Africa. From the isiXhosa for “south”.


naartjie (nar-chee) – noun – Tangerine (Citrus reticulata). From the Afrikaans, originally from the Tamil nārattai.

Nama, Namaqua, Namaqualandernoun – Khoikhoi people of South Africa’s Northern Cape province and southwest Namibia, one of those people, and the language they speak. From the Nama word for themselves.

Namaqualand noun – Arid region of South Africa’s Northern Cape province and southwestern Namibia, inhabited largely by the Nama people and known for its annual explosion of desert flowers.

Namaqualand daisynoun – South African daisy Dimorphotheca sinuate, with bright yellow, orange or white flowers, which once a year carpets the arid northwest region of Namaqualand with colour.

Ndebele (n-deh-beh-leh) – noun – Two groups on Nguni people, one found in southwest Zimbabwe and the other in northeast South Africa, or a member of one of these groups. Their language is isiNdebele.

(neh) – exclamation, informal – “Really?”, “Oh yeah?” or “Is that so?”. Often used sarcastically. Or an invitation to agreement, similar to “Yes?”, as in: “That bakkie’s blooming big, nê?” From the Afrikaans.

Nguni (ng-goo-nih) – noun – Breed of indigenous South African long-horned cattle (Bos indicus) long associated with the Zulu people, with beautiful and varied black, brown, white and tan patterns on their hide.

Nguni (ng-goo-nih) – noun – Wide and diverse group of people who speak Bantu languages, or one of these languages, living mainly in southern Africa. Nguni peoples include the Zulu, Xhosa, Ndebele and Swazi (also known as Swati), with the corresponding languages of isiZulu, isiXhosa, isiNdebele and Siswati.

Nkone (n-ko-neh) – noun – Breed of indigenous long-horned Zebu (Bos indicus) beef cattle, with a piebald hide.

now-now adverb, informal – Shortly, in a bit: “I’ll be there now-now.”


oke, ou (oke, oh) – noun, informal – Man, similar to guy or bloke. The word ou (oh) can be used interchangeably. From the Afrikaans ou (old).

ola (oh-lah) – exclamation, informal – Hello, greetings, how are you.

oribi noun – Small African antelope (Ourebia ourebi) with a reddish tan back and white underparts.


pap (pup) – noun – Porridge made from mealie meal (maize meal) cooked with water and salt to a fairly stiff consistency – “stywepap” being the stiffest. The staple food of South Africa. “Pap” can also mean weak or tired. From the Afrikaans.

papsak (pup-suck) – noun, informal – Cheap box wine sold in its foil container, without the box. From the Afrikaans pap (soft) and sak (sack).

pasop (pus-orp) – verb, informal – Beware or watch out. From the Afrikaans.

Perlé (per-lay) – noun – Semi-sweet, slightly sparkly and somewhat cheap South African wine. From the German Perlwein (slightly sparkling wine).

perlemoen (per-leh-muhn) – noun – Abalone (Haliotis midae), a large shellfish much like a plus-sized mussel. A delicacy, perlemoen fetch a high price internationally, putting the species under constant threat from poachers. South Africa has strict laws, and enforcers, that vigilantly protect the perlemoen stocks off its shores. From the Middle Dutch perlemoeder (mother of pearl: perl means pearl; moeder means mother).

piet-my-vrou (peet-may-frow) – noun – The red-chested cuckoo (Cuculus solitarus). The name, an approximation of the bird’s call, means “Peter my wife” in Afrikaans.

platteland (plutt-uh-lunt) – noun – Farmland, countryside. Literally “flat land” in Afrikaans (plat means flat), it now refers to any rural area in which agriculture takes place.

potjie (poy-kee) – noun – Rounded and three-legged cast-iron pot, with a lid, used for cooking stew over an open fire. From the Afrikaans diminutive for “pot”.

potjiekos (poy-kee kohs) – noun – Food – mostly long-stewed meat and vegetables – cooked in a potjie. A potjie, in Afrikaans, is a three-legged cast-iron pot used for cooking over an open fire; kos is Afrikaans for “food”.

protea noun – Group of South African fynbos plant species (genus Protea) with distinctive cone-like flower heads. The king protea is the country’s national flower.

puffadder, pofadder noun – Viper or adder of the species Britis arietans. From the Afrikaans pofadder.


quagga (kwah-gh-ah) – noun – Extinct South African zebra (Equus quagga), with stripes only on its forequarters and a reddish-brown hide behind its stripes, native to South Africa’s Cape provinces. The species was indiscriminately hunted in the colonial era, until its last living specimen died at the Amsterdam zoo on 12 August 1883.

Quena noun – Khoikhoi

quiver treenoun –Tree-like aloe plant (Aloe dichotoma), mostly found in the desert regions of Namibia and South Africa’s Northern Cape province. The plant’s branches were used by the San Bushmen to make quivers for their arrows.


rand noun – South Africa’s currency, made up of 100 cents. The name comes from the Witwatersrand (Dutch for “white waters ridge”), the region in Gauteng province in which most of the country’s gold deposits are found.

ratel (raa-til) – noun – Honey badger, (Mellivora capensis). Found throughout Africa, as well as in the Middle East and Asia, the ratel is one of the world’s smallest but fiercest carnivores. The animal has been classed the world’s most fearless animal for many years. In acknowledgement of its fierceness, “ratel” is also the name given to the basic infantry fighting vehicle of the South African military’s mechanised infantry battalions.

red antsnoun – Security forces used by the Johannesburg city council to evict squatters and others from illegally occupied dwellings. The name comes from the red overalls they wear.

Ridgeback noun – Formerly Rhodesian Ridgeback, a breed of southern African dog developed from a mix indigenous dogs such as the Africanis and sturdy working European breeds. A large, loyal and handsome working dog originally found on farms, the Ridgeback has short reddish fur, rising to a distinctive ridge on its back.

robot noun – Traffic lights.

rock upverb, informal – Arrive somewhere, often unannounced or uninvited. Example: “I was going to go out but then my china rocked up.”

rooibos (roy-borss) – noun – Afrikaans for red bush, this popular South African tea made from the Cyclopia genistoides bush is gaining worldwide popularity for its health benefits.

rooinek (roy-neck) – noun – English-speaking South African, from the Afrikaans for “red neck”. It was first coined by Afrikaners to refer to immigrant Englishmen, whose white necks were particularly prone to sunburn.


samoosa (suh-moo-suh) – noun – Small, spicy, triangular-shaped savoury pie deep-fried in oil. Originally made by the Indian and Malay communities, samoosas – known as samosas in Britain – are popular with all South Africans. From the Persian and Urdu.

San noun – Southern African Bushmen, a member of that group, or their language. From the Nama sān (meaning “aboriginals”, “settlers” or gatherers). There is some debate on the political correctness of the use of “San” versus “Bushman”.

sangoma (sun-go-mah) – noun – Traditional healer or diviner. From the isiZulu isangoma.

sarmie noun, informal – Sandwich.

scale, scalyverb and adjective, informal – To scale something means to steal it. A scaly person is not to be trusted.

separate developmentnoun – Grand apartheid euphemism for segregation and the “homelands” policy. The argument was that the different races, separated in a single country, would be allowed to develop according to their own ability and culture. The reality was gross exploitation and poverty for black South Africans, and undeserved and unbalanced prosperity for the country’s white people.

Sepedi (seh-peh-dih) – noun – Another name for Sesotho sa Leboa, the Northern Sotho language of the Basotho people.

Sesotho (seh-su-tu) – noun – Southern Sotho language of the Basotho people.

Sesotho sa Leboa (seh-su-tu sah leh-bo-wa) – noun – Northern Sotho language of the Basotho people. Identified in the section of the South African Constitution that deals with language rights as “Sepedi”.

Setswana (set-swah-nah) – noun – Bantu language of the Tswana people.

shame exclamation, informal – Broadly denotes sympathetic feeling or pleasure. Someone admiring a baby, kitten or puppy might say: “Ag shame!” to emphasise its cuteness. Also used to express sympathy. As MediaClub columnist Jacob Dlamini says: “Only in South Africa would people use the word shame when a baby is born (“Shame, what a beautiful baby!”); when that baby falls and hurts itself (“Shame, poor thing!”) and when that baby dies (“Ag shame, what a shame!”). To us, shame is just one of those words that have become something of an omnibus. We use it to mean whatever we want it to mean.”

sharp exclamation, informal – Often doubled up for effect as sharp-sharp!, the word is used as a greeting, a farewell, for agreement or just to express enthusiasm.

shebeen noun – Township tavern, illegal under the apartheid regime, often set up in a private house and frequented by black South Africans. Similar to a speakeasy. From the 18th-century Anglo-Irish síbín, from séibe (mugful).

shed verb – To be deprived of electricity during load shedding.

Shona (shaw-nah) – noun – A member of a Bantu-language-speaking group of people found in northern parts of South Africa, but mostly in southern Zimbabwe, and their language.

shongololo, songololonoun – Large brown millipede, from the isiXhosa and isiZulu ukushonga (to roll up).

shot noun, informal – Good, yes, it’s been done.

shweet noun, informal – Good, yes.

Siswati (sih-swah-tih) – noun – Nguni language of the Swazi people.

sjambok (sham-bok) – noun and verb – Stout leather whip made from animal hide. As verb, to hit someone or something with the whip. From the Dutch tjambok, from the Urdu chābuk.

skelm (skellem) – noun and adverb, informal – Shifty or untrustworthy person; a criminal. As an adverb, to do something on the sly. From the Afrikaans, from the Dutch schelm.

skinner noun and verb, informal – Gossip, to gossip. A person who gossips is known as a skinnerbek (gossip mouth). From the Afrikaans.

skollie (skoh-li) – noun, informal – Gangster, criminal, from the Greek skolios (crooked).

skop, skiet en donner (skawp, skeet en donner) – noun, informal – Action movie. Taken from Afrikaans, it literally means “kick, shoot and beat up”.

skrik noun, informal – Fright: “I caught a big skrik” means “I got a big fright”. From the Afrikaans.

skrik vir niks adjective, informal – Scared of nothing. From the Afrikaans.

slap chips (slup chips) – noun – French fries, usually soft, oily and vinegar-drenched. Slap is Afrikaans for “limp”, which is how French fries are generally made here.

smokes noun, informal – Cigarettes.

snoek (like book) – noun – Popular and tasty fish (Thyrsites atun) of the southern oceans. From the Afrikaans.

snotsiekte (snowt-seek-teh) – noun – Malignant catarrhal fever, a disease to which wildebeest are prone, characterised by excessive production of nasal mucous, or snot. From the Afrikaans snot (snot) and siekte (sickness).

sosatie (soh-saa-tee) – noun – Kebab on a stick. Afrikaans, from the South African Dutch sasaattje, from the Javanese sesate. Java, like the Cape, was a Dutch East India Company colony.

Sotho (soo-too) – noun – Member of a group of people living mainly in Lesotho, Botswana and the northern parts of South Africa, and their languages.

South African Warnoun – Modern term for the Anglo-Boer War of 1880 to 1881, in recognition of the fact that while the principal combatants were the British and Boers, other nations and communities – such as Africans and Indians – also took part.

Soweto noun – South Africa’s largest township, in the south of the City of Johannesburg municipality. From the abbreviation of South Western Townships.

spanspek (spun-speck) – noun – Cantaloupe, an orange-fleshed melon. The word comes from the Afrikaans Spaanse spek, meaning “Spanish bacon”. The story goes that Juana Smith, the Spanish wife of 19th-century Cape governer Harry Smith, insisted on eating melon instead of bacon for breakfast, causing her bemused Afrikaans-speaking servants to coin the word.

spazanoun – Informal township and inner city convenience store. From the township slang for “camouflaged”.

spookgerook (spoo-ahk-ghah-roo-ahk) – adjective, informal – Literally, in Afrikaans, ghost-smoked. Used jokingly, the word means “mad”, “paranoid” or “stoned”.

springbok noun – South African gazelle Antidorcas marsupialis, known for leaping in the air (“pronking”) when disturbed, under predator attack or as display. From the Afrikaans spring (jump or spring) and bok (buck).

Springboks noun – South African national rugby team, winners of the 1995 and 2006 Rugby World Cup. Known affectionately as the Bokke. A Springbok is an individual member of the team. From the word for the South African gazelle.

stoep (stoop, with a short o sound) – noun – Porch or verandah.

stokvel noun – Informal savings club, where members make a regular equal payment on a weekly, fortnightly or monthly basis. Every month a single member is then given the entire pot.

stompie noun, informal – Cigarette butt. From the Afrikaans stomp (stump). The term picking up stompies means intruding into a conversation at its tail end, with little information about its content.

stroppy adjective, informal – Difficult, uncooperative, argumentative or stubborn. Originated in the 1950s, perhaps as a shortening of obstreperous.

struesbob (s-true-zz-bob) – exclamation, informal – “As true as Bob”, as true as God, the gospel truth.

sure, sure-sure, for sureexclamation, informal – Yes; general affirmative.

Swallows noun – Affectionate term for Moroka Swallows, a South African Premier Soccer League football team with a home base in the Soweto suburb of Moroka.

Swazi, Swatinoun – The Swazi people, and their language.


takkie noun – Basic running shoe or sneaker. Possibly from “tacky”, meaning “cheap” or “of poor quality”. The spelling reflects the perception that the word is of Afrikaans origin.

tannie (tunny) – noun, informal – “Auntie” in Afrikaans, but used for any older woman.

taxi noun – Generally a minibus used to transport a large number of people, and the most-used form of transport in South Africa.

to die foradjective, informal – Wonderful, beautiful, coveted: “That necklace is to die for.”

tokoloshe noun – Evil imp or spirit, thought to be most active at night. Part of South African folklore and today often the subject of tabloid journalism. From the isiZulu utokoloshe and isiXhosa uthikoloshe (river-spirit).

tom noun, informal – Money. Uncertain origin.

toppie noun, informal – Middle-aged or elderly man, or father. From either the isiZulu thopi (growing sparsely, a reference to thinning hair), or the Hindi topi (hat).

torchkop noun, informal – Headtorch or headlamp (such as a Petzl), or a person wearing one. From torch + the Afrikaans kop (head). Coined at the Oppikoppi Bushveld Festival in August 2005.

township noun – Low-income dormitory suburb outside a city or town in which black South Africans were required by law to live, while they sold their labour in the city or town centre, during the apartheid era.

toyi-toyinoun – A knees-up protest dance. From the isiNdebele and Shona.

trek noun – Long and often arduous journey. Best known from the Great Trek, the long journey by oxwagon the forebears of the Afrikaners took from the Cape Colony into the South African interior to escape British colonialism, beginning in the 1820s.

tsessebe noun – African antelope (Damaliscus lunatus) found in southern and eastern Africa.

Tshivenda noun – Language of the Venda people.

tsotsi noun – Gangster, hoodlum or thug – and the title of South Africa’s first Oscar-winning movie. Perhaps a corruption of “zoot suit”, the type of flashy clothing worn by township thugs in the 1950s.

Tsotsitaal noun – Township patois, derived from 1950s gangster slang, made up of a mixture of Afrikaans and isiZulu, and largely spoken in Gauteng. From the Tostsitaal tsotsi (gangster) and Afrikaans taal (language).

Tswana noun – Member of a group of people mainly found in Botswana and northern South Africa, and their language.

tune, tune me, tune grief, tune me griefverb, informal – Cause trouble; challenge me.


ubuntu noun – Southern African humanist philosophy of fellowship and community, based on the notion that a person is a person because of other people; “I am who I am because of you”. From the isiZulu for “humanity” or “goodness”.

Umkhonto noun – Short form of Umkhonto we Sizwe.

Umkhonto we Sizwenoun – Army of the exiled African National Congress during the struggle against apartheid; since 1994 amalgamated into the South African National Defence Force. From the isiZulu for “spear of the nation”.


veld (felt) – noun – Open grassland. From the Afrikaans, from the Dutch for “field”.

veldskoen, velskoen (fell-skun) – noun – Simple unworked leather shoes. From the Afrikaans veld (field) or vel (skin or hide) and skoen (shoe).

Venda noun – South African population group largely found in Limpopo province, who speak the Tshivenda language.

verkramp (fer-krump) – adjective – Extremely politically conservative or reactionary. From the Afrikaans for “narrow” or “cramped”.

vetkoek (fet-cook) – noun – Doughnut-sized bread roll made from deep-fried yeast dough, often served with savoury mince-meat. From the Afrikaans vet (fat) and koek (cake).

voema (vooma) – noun, informal – Variant spelling of woema.

voetsek (foot-sak) – exclamation, informal – Go away, buzz off. From the Afrikaans, originally from the 19th-century Dutch voort seg ik (be off I say).

voetstoets (foot-stoots) – adjective – “As is” or “with all its faults”. A legal term, used in the sale of a car or house. If the item is sold voetstoets the buyer may not claim for any defects, hidden or otherwise, discovered after the sale. From the Afrikaans, originally from the Dutch met de voet te stoten (to push with the foot).

vrot (frot) – adjective, informal – Rotten or smelly. From the Afrikaans.

vuvuzela (voo-voo-zeh-lah) – noun – Large, colourful plastic trumpet with the sound of a foghorn, blown enthusiastically by virtually everyone in the crowd at soccer matches. From the isiZulu for “making noise”.


walkie-talkienoun, informal – South African delicacy made from the heads and feet of a chicken.

wildebeest (vil-deh-beest) – noun – Gnu; large African antelope of two species (the blue or black wildebeest, genus Connochaetes) with a long head and sloping back. From the Afrikaans wilde (wild) and beest (beast).

windgat (vint-ghut) – noun, informal – Show-off or blabbermouth. From the Afrikaans wind (wind) and gat (hole).

witblitz (vit-blitz) – noun – Potent home-made distilled alcohol, much like the American moonshine. From the Afrikaans wit (white) and blitz (lightning).

woema (vooma) – noun – Speed or power, oomph. From the Afrikaans.

woes (voos) – adjective – Angry, irritated or aggressive. From the Afrikaans.

wonderboom (vonder-bu-wm) – noun – Wild fig (Ficus salicifolia), native to southern Africa. Also the name of a suburb of the city of Pretoria, and a popular South African pop group. From the Afrikaans wonder (wonder or marvel) and boom (tree).

wors (vors) – noun – Short for “boerewors”, a savoury sausage developed by the Boers, the forebears of today’s Afrikaners, some 200 years ago, and still popular at braais across South Africa. Also known as wors. From the Afrikaans boer (farmer) and wors (sausage, Dutch worst).


Xhosa noun – Nguni-language-speaking people of South Africa, found mainly in the Eastern Cape province.

Xitsonga noun – Nguni language of the Tsonga people.

yellow ricenoun – Rice cooked with turmeric and raisins, often served with curry.

zamalek noun, informal – Carling Black Label beer.

Zebu noun – Long-horned and often hump-backed varieties of cattle (Bos indicus), originally from India but now found in a large number of breeds across Africa. South African breeds include the Nguni and Afrikaner.

zol noun, informal – Hand-rolled cigarette or marijuana joint.

Zulu noun – Nguni-language-speaking South African population group found mainly in KwaZulu-Natal. Their language is isiZulu.

Additional information sourced from Wiktionary, Wikipedia and the Rhodes University Dictionary Unit for SA English.

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